There are three movement scales in the game:

Modes of Movement

While moving at the different movement scales, creatures generally walk, hustle, or run.

Table: Movement and Distance
Base Speed
15 ft. 20 ft. 30 ft. 40 ft.
One Round (Tactical)        
Walk 15 ft 20 ft. 30 ft. 40 ft.
Hustle 30 ft. 40 ft. 60 ft. 80 ft.
Run (x3) 45 ft 60 ft. 90 ft. 120 ft.
Run (x4) 60 ft. 80 ft. 120 ft. 160 ft.
One Minute (Local)        
Walk 150 ft 200 ft. 300 ft. 400 ft.
Hustle 300 ft 400 ft. 600 ft. 800 ft.
Run (x3) 450 ft 600 ft. 900 ft, 1,200 ft.
Run (x4) 600 ft. 800 ft. 1,200 ft. 1,600 ft.
One Hour (Overland)        
Walk 1 1/2 miles 2 miles 3 miles 4 miles
Hustle 3 miles 4 miles 6 miles 8 miles
One Day (Overland)        
Walk 12 miles 16 miles 24 miles 32 miles

Walk: A walk represents unhurried but purposeful movement at three miles per hour for an unencumbered human.

Hustle: A hustle is a jog that is movement at about six miles per hour for an unencumbered human. The double move action represents a hustle.

Run (X3): Moving three times your character's standard speed is a running pace for a character in heavy armor.

Run (X4): Moving four times your character's standard speed is a running pace for a character in light, medium, or no armor.

Hampered Movement

Obstructions, bad surface conditions, or poor visibility can hamper movement. The DM determines the category that a specific condition falls into (see Table: Hampered Movement). When movement is hampered, multiply the standard distance by the movement penalty (a fraction) to determine the distance covered.

If more than one condition applies, multiply the normal distance covered by all movement penalty fractions that apply.

Table: Hampered Movement
Condition Example Movement Penalty
Moderate obstruction Undergrowth x 3/4
Heavy obstruction Thick undergrowth x 1/2
Bad surface Steep slope or mud x 1/2
Very bad surface Deep snow x 1/4
Poor visibility Darkness or fog* x 1/2
* Includes any effects that create a "fog".

Tactical Movement

Use tactical speed for combat.

Some creatures have other modes of movement.


The creature can tunnel through dirt, but not through rock unless the descriptive text says otherwise. Creatures cannot use the run action while burrowing.


A creature with a climb speed has the Climb skill at no cost and gains a +8 racial bonus to all Climb checks. The creature must make a Climb check to climb any wall or slope with a DC of more than 0, but it always can choose to take 10, even if rushed or threatened while climbing. The creature climbs at the listed speed while climbing. If it chooses an accelerated climb, it moves at double the listed climb speed (or its normal land speed, whichever is less) and makes a single Climb check at a -5 penalty. Creatures cannot use the run action while climbing.


The creature can fly at the listed speed if carrying no more than a medium load. All fly speeds include a parenthetical note indicating maneuverability, as follows.

Creatures can use the run action while flying, provided they fly in a straight line.

Most flying creatures have to slow down at least a little to make a turn, and many are limited to fairly wide turns and must maintain a minimum forward speed. Each flying creature has a maneuverability rating that defines how it moves when flying.

Table: Flight Maneuverability
Type: Perfect Good Average Poor Clumsy
Example: Will-o'-wisp Beholder Gargolye Wyvern Manticore
Minimum Forward Speed None None Half Half Half
Hover Yes Yes No No No
Fly Backward Yes Yes No No No
Reverse Free –5 ft.
Turn Any 90º/5 ft. 45º/5 ft. 45º/5 ft. 45º/10 ft.
Turn in Place Any +90º/–5 ft. +45º/–5 ft. No No
Maximum Turn Any Any 90º 45º 45º
Up Angle Any Any 60º 45º 45º
Up Speed Full Half Half Half Half
Down Angle Any Any Any 45º 45º
Down Speed Double Double Double Double Double
Between Down and Up 0 0 5 ft. 10 ft. 20 ft.

Minimum Forward Speed: If a flying creature fails to maintain its minimum forward speed, it must land at the end of its movement. If it is too high above the ground to land, it falls straight down, descending 150 feet in the first round of falling. If this distance brings it to the ground, it takes falling damage. If the fall doesn't bring the creature to the ground, it must spend its next turn recovering from the stall. It must succeed at a Reflex saving throw (DC 20) to recover. Otherwise it falls another 300 feet. If it hits the ground, it takes falling damage. Otherwise, it has another chance to recover on its next turn.

Hover: The ability to stay in one place while airborne.

Fly Backward: The ability to fly backward.

Reverse: A creature with good maneuverability uses up 5 feet of its speed to start flying backward.

Turn: How much the creature can turn after covering the stated distance.

Turn in Place: A creature with good or average maneuverability can "spend" some of its speed to turn in place.

Maximum Turn: How much the creature can turn in any one space.

Up Angle: The angle at which the creature can climb.

Up Speed: How fast the creature can climb.

Down Angle: The angle at which the creature can descend.

Down Speed: A flying creature can fly down at twice its normal flying speed.

Between Down and Up: An average, poor, or clumsy flier must fly level for a minimum distance after descending and before climbing. Any flier can begin descending after a climb without an intervening distance.


A creature with a swim speed can move through water at the listed speed without making Swim checks. It gains a +8 racial bonus to any Swim check to perform some special action or avoid a hazard. The creature always can choose to take 10, even if rushed or threatened when swimming. Creatures can use the run action while swimming, provided they swim in a straight line.

Local Movement

Characters exploring an area use local movement, measured in minutes.

Walk: A character can walk without a problem on the local scale.

Hustle: A character can hustle without a problem on the local scale. See Overland Movement, below, for movement measured in hours.

Run: A character with a Constitution score of 9 or higher can run for a minute without a problem. Generally, a character can run for about a minute or two before having to rest for a minute.

Overland Movement

Characters covering long distances cross-country use overland movement. Overland movement is measured in hours or days. A day represents 8 hours of actual travel time. For rowed watercraft, a day represents 10 hours of rowing. For a sailing ship, it represents 24 hours.

Walk: Your character can walk 8 hours in a day of travel without a problem.

Hustle: Your character can hustle for 1 hour without a problem. Hustling for a second hour in between sleep cycles causes your character 1 point of subdual damage, and each additional hour causes twice the damage taken during the previous hour.

Run: A character can't run for an extended period of time. Attempts to run and rest in cycles effectively work out to a hustle.

Terrain: The terrain through which a character travels affects how much distance the character can cover in an hour or a day.

Forced March: In a day of normal walking, a character walks for 8 hours. The character spend the rest of daylight time making and breaking camp, resting, and eating.

A character can walk for more than 8 hours in a day by making a forced march. For each hour of marching beyond 8 hours, the character makes a Constitution check (DC 10 + 1 per extra hour). If the check fails, the character takes 1d6 points of subdual damage.

A character can't recover this subdual damage normally until the character halts and rests for at least 4 hours. It's possible for a character to march into unconsciousness by pushing himself or herself too hard.

Mounted Movement: A horse bearing a rider can move at a hustle. The damage it takes, however, is normal damage, not subdual damage. It can also be force-marched, but its Constitution checks automatically fail, and, again, the damage it takes is normal damage.

See Table: Mounts and Vehicles for mounted speeds and speeds for vehicles pulled by draft animals.

Waterborne Movement: See Table: Mounts and Vehicles for speeds for water vehicles.

Table: Terrain and Overland Movement
Terrain Highway Road Trackless
Plains x1 x1 x1
Scrub, rough x1 x1 x3/4
Forest x1 x1 x1/2
Jungle x1 x3/4 x1/4
Swamp x1 x3/4 x1/2
Hills x1 x3/4 x1/2
Mountains x3/4 x1/2 x1/4
Sandy desert x1 x1/2

Table: Mounts and Vehicles
Mount/Vehicle Per Hour Per Day
Mount (carrying load)    
Light horse or light warhorse 6 miles 48 miles
Light horse (151-450 lb.) 4 miles 32 miles
Light warhorse (231-690 lb.) 4 miles 32 miles
Heavy horse 5 miles 40 miles
Heavy horse (201-600 lb.) 3 1/2 miles 28 miles
Heavy warhorse 4 miles 32 miles
Heavy warhorse (301-900 lb.) 3 miles 24 miles
Pony or warpony 4 miles 32 miles
Pony (76-225 lb.) 3 miles 24 miles
Warpony (101-300 lb.) 3 miles 24 miles
Donkey or mule 3 miles 24 miles
Mule (231-690 lb.) 2 miles 16 miles
Cart or wagon 2 miles 16 miles
Raft or barge (poled or towed)* 1/2 mile 5 miles
Keelboat (rowed)* 1 miles 10 miles
Rowboat 1 1/2 miles 15 miles
Sailing ship (sailed) 2 miles 48 miles
Warship (sailed and rowed) 2 1/2 miles 60 miles
Longship (sailed and rowed) 3 miles 72 miles
Galley (rowed and sailed) 4 miles 96 miles
* Rafts, barges, and keelboats are used on lakes and rivers.

If going downstream, add the speed of the current (typically 3 mph) to the speed of the vehicle. In addition to 10 hours of being rowed, the vehicle can also float an additional 14 hours, if someone can guide it, so add an additional 42 miles to the daily distance traveled.

These vehicles can't be rowed against any significant current, but they can be pulled upstream by draft animals on the shores.